Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in cancer patients aims to induce or augment an effective antitumor immune response against tumor antigens and was first explored in a clinical trial in the 1990s. More than two decades later, numerous clinical trials have been performed or are ongoing with a wide variety of DC subsets, culture protocols, and treatment regimens. The safety of DC vaccination and its ability to induce antitumor responses have clearly been established; however, although scattered patients with long-term benefit were reported, DC vaccines have not yet fulfilled their promise, perhaps mainly due to the lack of large-scale well-conducted phase II/III trials. To allow meaningful multicenter phase III trials, the production of DC vaccines should be standardized between centers which is now becoming feasible. To improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy, it could be combined with other treatments. Clin Cancer Res; 22(8); 1897–906. ©2016 AACR.
See all articles in this CCR Focus section, “Opportunities and Challenges in Cancer Immunotherapy.”
- Received October 29, 2015.
- Revision received February 21, 2016.
- Accepted February 23, 2016.
- ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.